The cello part for Mendelssohn's Symphony No. 4 in A major, Op. 90 (nicknamed the Italian Symphony) has been edited by Ronald Leonard, principal cellist of the Los Angeles Philharmonic from 1975 until 1999. Leonard's bowings, fingerings and other editorial markings have been added throughout the score.
Like his Third Symphony, Mendelssohn's Symphony No. 4 has its origins in the composer's tour of Europe from 1829 to 1831. Mendelssohn began the Italian Symphony in Italy but finished it in Berlin, though he would never publish it. The composition didn't appear in print until 1851, after Mendelssohn's death. It is numbered as Symphony No. 4 when in fact it was his third symphony composed. The joyful sonata form first movement is followed by an impression of a religious procession the composer witnessed in Naples. The final movement incorporates dance figurations from the Roman saltarello and the Neapolitan tarantella.
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